Anyone who is going to participate in firearm training or going to purchase a firearm in present or in future. This introductory guide will help you to add extra knowledge about the types of bullets, materials from which they are made, and the cartridge they need. 

What is a Firearm?

Firearms are used to be fired with both hands. The Rifle has a relatively long rifled barrel and a buttstock to place against the shoulder. A rifle provides great accuracy and a longer range.

Types of Bullets:

There are different types of cartridges needed for various different types of bullets. Bullets have different shapes, sizes and the amount of lead content also varies. The shape and size of a bullet depending on the material they are made from. In contrast with their diameters, bullets are also designated by their weights. In guns and ammunition calibre is known for the internal diameter as well as the length of the barrel bore.

Basic types of materials used in common handguns are:

1. Lead bullets – Some bullets are totally made out of the lead. Thus such bullets are silvery in colour and are known as cast bullets. For example, there is a cast of forty with five calibre bullets. Lead is a heavy material but soft. They come in a variety of shapes or sizes also some may have hollow points. The making of the hollow point depends on the usage of the user. For certain uses, there are specific hollow pointed bullets available. Cast bullets used for target shooting such as hunting and self-defence. 

Types of cartridges used: 45 colt cartridge, 10mm auto cartridge, 357 magnum cartridge, 22 long rifle rimfire cartridge. 

2. Other bullets – Other types of bullets have a thin layer on the outside cover known as a metal casing. The jacket is made up of other metals, unusually copper. Such a thin copper layer covers the lead core. Such types of bullets are known as fire jacketed bullets.

In jacketed bullets, there are several types

  • Full metal jacket (FMJ) – They cover the upper as well as sideways and also the lead core part with copper. These bullets are used mainly in military forces. It is also used in ammunition in target shooting training.

Types of cartridges used for Full metal jacket: 9mm Luger cartridge, 40 Smith & Wesson cartridge, 38 special cartridges.

  • Jacketed Soft point (JSP) – Soft point jacketed bullet leaves the upper tip point exposed to lead core. But all other sides gets jacket. This is also known as Partial jacket. Such bullets are used for hunting and self defense. The tip part as it is exposed will expand while hitting the soft tissue. eg.  41 caliber soft point bullet,

Types of cartridges used for Jacketed Soft point bullets: 44 Magnum cartridge, 10 mm auto cartridge

  • Jacketed Hollow point (JHP)  – In such a type of bullet, the tip has a hollow cavity point. Such bullets are often used for hunting and self defense. It expands outwardly on hitting the target. 

Types of cartridges used for Jacketed Hollow point bullets: 45 Auto cartridge, 10 mm auto cartridge, 38 special cartridges.


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